ENGA 1A Englisch Grammar 1

1) The verbs be, have, have got

1. Be 

- in short answers the forms I'm, he's, we're etc cannot be used

2. Have 

- positiv sentences in simple present: i, you, we, they have, He, she, it has

- negative sentences and questions are formed using the helping verb do

- simple past form is had and negative sentences and questions are formed using did

- helping verb do/does/did

3.Have got

- positiv sentences in simple present: I, you, we, they have, he, she, it has got 

- negative sentences = subject+have/has+not+got (hasn't got)

- Questions = have/has+subject+got

-simple past is formed with had and follows the same pattern as the simple present

- hepling verb has/have/had

4. Comparing have and have got

-Both are used to talk about posessions

- Only have can be used to talk about actions and continuous tenses

2) The Present Tenses

1. Forming the present simple

- in positiv sentences the infinitive is unchanged for the persons: I, you, we and they

- we add an s to the end of the infinitive for the persons he, she, it

- Exeptions: go and do add es, have  becomes has, verbs ending in sh; ch; x and ss add es, verbs ending in a consonant + y change to ies

- helping verb do/does + infinitive is used to form negative sentences, questions and short answers 

2. Forming the present continuous / present progressiv

- form of to be + verb + ing

- live-living, stop-stopping, lie-lying

- in negative sentences add not = is not buying, are not listening

- questions = to be+subject+verb+ing (Are you using...)

-helping verb is to be

3. Using the simple present

- for regular, routine actions (signal words: every day/week/month etc., always, often, usually, never, sometimes, occasionally, on Mondays/weekdays etc.

- for rules of nature, for permanent situations

-with state verbs 

4. Using the present continuous

- for actions happening now (signal words: now, at the moment, currently, at present)

- for actions happening around now, for trends and gradual developments (signal words:  these days, nowadays, today, this year, this season etc.

-for temporary situations/ exeptions (signal words: today, this week, month, year, season) 

3) The simple past

1. Forming the simple past 

- in positive sentences, the simple past of regular verbs is formed by adding -ed to the infinitve 

- exeptions: verbs ending in e only add d, verbs ending in a consonant + y change to ied, verbs ending in a short-sounding vowel + consonant, double the consonant (stopped)

- the simple past forms of irregular verbs follow no regular pattern and have to be learned (see sppendix) 

- negativ sentences are formed did + not + infinitive for both regular and irregular verbs 

-short form of did not is didn't

- questions are formed did+subject+infinitive for both

- helping verb is did and is used for forming short answers

- we use the same form for all persons I, you , he, she, it, we and they

- to be is diffrent (see p. 13)

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Public - 8/11/16, 6:24 PM