Police and Power

What Academia Can Learn From History


Durrell K. Martin

“You have the right to remain silent.

Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to speak to an attorney, and to have an attorney present during any questioning.

If you cannot afford a lawyer, one will be provided for you at government expense.” 

Miranda v. Arizona (1966)


A defendant “must be warned prior to any questioning that he has the right to remain silent, that anything he says can be used against him in a court of law, that he has the right to the presence of an attorney, and that if he cannot afford an attorney one will be appointed for him prior to any questioning if he so desires.”

1931 Report on Lawlessness in Law Enforcement



Wickersham Commission found extensive evidence of police 

misconduct and violence throughout major urban departments.



Chambers et al v. Florida (1940), the court stated its displeasure 

with the actions of the officers involved in the court cases provided; 

however, there was no indication of the action to be used 

against officers accused of excessive force. 

Review of Fatal Encounters Database 

2015 and 2016 partial year data 

Deaths Per US State 2015

Deaths Per US State 2016

2013 - 2016 Deaths

The Guardian News and Media Unlimited


Young black men were nine times more likely than other Americans to be killed by police officers in 2015. 

Final tally: 1,134 deaths (1,146 actual) at the hands of law enforcement officers.



About one in every 65 deaths of a young African American man in the US is a killing by police.



Thus far, 793 deaths at the hands of law enforcement in 2016. 

Holistic. Openness. Perspective. Efficacy.

H.O.P.E.

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Fatal Encounters Bunkr

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Public - 10/16/16, 8:40 PM