Vertebrates and Invertebrates


Scientific name:   Vulpes      Vulpes

Common name:  Red Fox

Class: Mammalia

Body  Parts/Structures


Red foxes live around the world in many diverse habitats including forests, grasslands, mountains, and deserts. They also adapt well to human environments such as farms, suburban areas, and even large communities.


The red fox eats a wide variety of foods.It is an omnivore and its diet includes fruits, berries, and grasses.It also eats small birds, and small mammals like squirrels, rabbits and mice. A large part of the red fox's diet is made up of invertebrates like crickets, caterpillars, grasshoppers, beetles and crayfish.The red fox will continue to hunt even when its full. It stores extra food under leaves, snow or dirt.


Movement is an essential part of any organism whether it is an animal or a plant. Movement is vital for a red fox because it enables it to hunt prey and find food, escape from predators and travel where ever it may want to go depending on the seasons. The act of moving is created by bones,muscles, ligaments, tendons and the nervous system all working in conjunction with each other to move joints.All of these parts are made up of specialized cells which have evolved to do one job in harmony with the others.


The most common relationship pattern between the Red fox is between one male and one female, although, that does not mean other methods are not possible. In a monogamous relationship, red foxes would mate all together and live in what is called a den. If the males have many different mating females they simply aid the females in raising their offspring.

Just like humans , red foxes females have small window of ovulation time, 6 days. Once a year, depending on where the female is determines the exact time of estrous:


Jan-Feb(Central Regions)



Males have a set mating cycle no matter where they are located, and it starts in November and ends in March. Just like males, occasionally the females will sexually mate with many different males until they find the right male to become a companion with. Sexual reproduction lasts somewhere between 15-20 minutes which is then followed by a vocal clamor.

Adaptation and Survival

The red fox has become the most widely spread member of the order Carnivora.

Morphological Features

The red fox is a medium-sized canid and the largest of the genus Vulpes. Red foxes have slender and pointed muzzles with white on their upper lip. They have large, pointed and black backed ears. Their pelage (fur) is generally reddish-brown but has many varieties including red, silver, and cross morphs. 

Cross foxes have reddish brown pelage with a back stripe down the back and a second across the shoulders. Silver foxes range from strong silver to nearly completely black. Females may have pink-tingled underfur during the breeding season. White markings may be found on the throat and chest. Red foxes have long and slender legs with the lower proportion of the leg being black; possibly splashed with white. Their tails are long, bushy and thick, sometimes with a white tip. The eyes of mature animals are yellow. The fox, like other canids have molar structures emphasizes crushing.

Red foxes have tail glands which lie within the dermis and subcutaneous tissue above the root of the tail. Body weight ranges from 3-14 kg (6.6-30.9 lbs). Body mass is positively related to latitude and varies greatly by region. Red foxes display high sexual dimorphism (distinct size difference between sexes). Where the males are bigger (Sillero-Zubiri et al. 2004).


Some of the most critical adaptations to the red fox’s physiology involve thermoregulation. The same dense, but short fur which was so popular to fur traders is an important surface for thermoregulation. Fur covers one-third of the body’s surface area, particularly the face, dorsal part of head, nose, ears, lower legs and paws.


Some of the most critical adaptations to the red fox’s physiology involve thermoregulation. The same dense, but short fur which was so popular to fur traders is an important surface for thermoregulation. Fur covers one-third of the body’s surface area, particularly the face, dorsal part of head, nose, ears, lower legs and paws.The nose is used for evaporative cooling and most likely forms part of a brain cooling mechanism as described in domestic dogs  These adaptations allow the red fox to compete to a certain extent with the artic fox in cold environments and simultaneously have the ability to survive in a much warmer habitat.

Behavioral Adaptation

Not all adaptations come in the form of physical adaptation;

Red foxes have developed a behavioral adaptation to the unreliable availability of prey. Caching is a method red foxes use to store food for later. During this process, a shallow hole

5-10 cm deep is dug, a food item (relatively small in size) is deposited, and then the hole is covered and camouflaged

Facts about red foxes

  • Over the centuries the fox has been hunted for its fur (and its’ tail cut-off which is used as the hunters trophy, known as a ‘brush’).
  • Foxes belong to the dog family, which includes wolves, coyotes, grey foxes, raccoon dogs and their relatives.
  • The fox does not chew its food. Instead it uses its carnassial or shearing teeth to cut the meat into manageable chunks.


Scientific Name: Coccinellidae

Common Name: Lady bug/Lady bird

Class: Insecta


A ladybugs natural habitat is all types of vegetation that harbors its food, other insects and their eggs. They often hibernate in dense populations and during hibernation, ladybugs feed on their stored fat. Ladybugs live in a variety of habitats, including forests, fields, grasslands, gardens, and even in people's houses. Collectors locate these populations and collect the insects to sell to organic gardeners. The gardeners often use the ladybugs and their larvae to control aphids and other insects pests on their crops.

Like all insects, the ladybug has six jointed legs and there are special organs on their feet to help them smell. The ladybug uses its antennae to touch, smell and taste.

Life cycle


Most ladybugs are predators. They eat other insects. Most are considered pest to humans who like to grow plants for food or beauty. They are often called a gardeners best friend.


While the foul flavor of ladybugs teaches most mammals and birds to avoid eating them, it does not affect toads, and they are frequent predators of these small, helpful insects. Toads use their long, sticky tongues to catch ladybugs, just as they do other flying insects.


Each species of ladybugs has its own pheromones for attracting a mate. When they find each other, the male grips the female from behind and holds tight. They can copulate or stay together for more than 2 hours at a time. Female ladybugs can store a male sperm for 2 too 3 months before laying eggs


Among the most beneficial of all ladybug adaptations is the hard outer shell, which is called the elytra. This shell protects vulnerable ladybugs from predators and contain bright spots to warn potential predators that ladybugs are poisonous.

Facts about ladybugs

  • A ladybug's bright colors warn predators to stay away.
  • Ladybug larvae resemble tiny alligators, with elongated bodies and bumpy skin.
  •   You can't tell a ladybug's age by counting its spots.
  • Ladybugs bleed from their knees when threatened.
  • The "lady" in ladybug refers to the Virgin Mary.
  • Ladybugs aren't really bugs at all, they're beetles.

SALAMAT!!! :))

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by shieladeloncastillo


Public - 10/18/16, 9:56 AM