Networking and Communications


Design and build a wired and/or wireless network connecting at least two processors






OSI layers

7: application (HTTP)

6: presentation (SSL)

5: session (RPC)

4: transport (TCP, UDP)

3: network (IP)

2: data link (MAC)

1: physical (PHY)

Serial Network - RS-232

30,5m max


+/-3V or +/-5V

Chain network

Serial Network - RS-422

Cables independancy for each slave devices


Serial Network - RS-485

Cables independancy for each slave devices

Less wires


Serial Network - I2C

Up to 112 nodes

Pull-up signals

1 clock wire

1 data wire

+5V or +3,3V

Serial Network - SPI

Similar to the I2C network

with a chip selector for each slave

Serial Network - USB

2 wires point to point link

USB 1.0 Low Speed 1.5 Mbit/s

USB 1.0 Full Speed 12 Mbit/s

USB 2.0 High Speed Also, Hi-Speed 480 Mbit/s

USB 3.0 SuperSpeed 5 Gbit/s

USB 3.1 SuperSpeed+ 10 Gbit/s

Physical media

data rate= bandwidth * log_2 (signal/noise)

Wired transmission - Single-ended vs differential

Wired transmission - Open drain

Wired transmission

Main networks use only 2 states (Low and High)

New physical media could have 3 states (Low, high and open)

Wired transmission could be done using electricity or light (Optical fiber)

Wireless transmission - ISM

Wireless transmission are regulated by the FCC

Signal modulation

PCM: Pulse-Code Modulation

PPM: Pulse-Position Modulation

OOK: On-Off Keying

FSK: Frequency-Shift Keying

BPSK: Binary Phase-Shift Keying

QAM: Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

OFDM: Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing

FHSS: Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum

DSSS: Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum

UWB: Ultra-WideBand

Channel sharing - Aloha network

Origin of the Ethernet Network

All the emissions are on the same frequency

The collision and perturbation are compensated by repeated transmission

Channel sharing

Channel sharing

TDMA: Time-Division Multiple Access

FDMA: Frequency-Division Multiple Access

CSMA: Carrier-Sense Multiple Access

CD: Collision Detection

CA: Collision Avoidance

CDMA: Code-Division Multiple Access

MIMO: Multiple-Input Multiple-Output


Detection, correction

Block, convolution codes

Parity, checksum, Hamming, Reed-Solomon, Turbo

Networking - Internet protocols

Network software - Wireshark

RF - Electronic components

Radio components:

oscillator, mixer, PA, LNA, IF, I/Q, demod, baseband, filters

Antennas components:

Q, antenna gain, impedance matching

RF - Single components

MICRF (300-470 MHz)

MRF49XA (433/868/915 MHz)

nRF905 (433/868/915 MHz)

nRF24L01+ (2.4 GHz ISM)

CC2541 (2.4 GHz Bluetooth)

ESP8266 (2.4 GHz Wi-Fi)

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Networking and Communications

by fabienbogni


Public - 5/10/16, 7:11 AM